History of Customs Enforcement


Historical Study No 6 -1988-Special Customs Bicentennial Reissue-San Francisco-1988”


Sept 2, 1789 –    Chapter 12- Section 2- Vol 1 –pg. 65 of the Act that created the Treasury Dept – conferred upon the Sec. Treasury – “that persons were employed to act as special agents and assistant special agents in the Customs Service”

Dec 28, 1793 —    One of the first references to the title “Special Agent” was found in Sec Treasury – Circular of this date

NOTE- Treasury Sec. Circulars were administrative rules/regulations of the time for all Customs employees

Stating “it may be proper for the collector of the district to constitute him [the Surveyor] a special agent for this particular purpose”

NOTE- the text is referring to the collection of duty from a vessel

March 2, 1799 – Section 21 of the Customs Administrative Act

This section requires the principal officers of Customs to submit their papers – books and accounts for inspection to a person or persons named by the Treasury Sec.

Sep 7, 1799 —      As early as Sep 7, 1799 there were statements from Treasury Sec Oliver Wolcott to Collector Wm Watson (Little Egg Harbor, NJ) about the possibility of using a “Confidential Person”

* Undercover or “covert operations” were begun shortly after 1789*

May 15, 1820-   An Act Providing for the Better Organization of the Treasury Dept –The title “Agent of the Treasury” was used in this law.

July 11, 1829 – Treasury Sec–Samuel Ingham -employed N. Goodsell for “Special Duty” as an Inspector of Customs – pay rate for Goodsell set by the Sec at $3.00 per day plus $3.00 per day expenses.

This individual had originally been employed in the mid-1820s and was conducting           covert operations in foreign countries and reported directly to the Sec of Treasury.

HISTORICAL NOTE – Entry in Official Register of the U.S. showed:

1829- Elizabeth Kelly as a Nurse working at the Customhouse in New Orleans – She was listed as born in Ireland – she may have been first female employed by Customs)

June 18, 1830 -Treasury Sec Ingham to Collector Swartout (NYC) reveals that a “Confidential Agent” has been employed on the Northern NY border

May 2, 1831 –   Collector Seymour Scovell, (Niagara, NY) wrote Sec. Treasury Ingham “that Samuel M. Chubbuck has been hired as “Secret Inspector”

Nov 8, 1831 – First written document located alluding to use of “Undercover Operators” – it was contained in a letter by Collector Samuel Swartout (NYC) to Treasury Sec Louis McLane.

Nov 16, 1831 – Treasury Sec Louis McLane approves employment of Robert Lawrence as “Secret Inspector” – he was nominated by Collector Samuel Swartout – Collector NYC

July 4, 1840 – Law passed by Congress regarding “receivers-general” also contained a section that allowed the Treasury Sec to appoint “Special Agents” to examine the books – accounts, and money on-hand at the depositaries established by this law.

“Special Agents” were also known as “Confidential Agents – Secret Inspectors- Secret Agents – Secret Traveling Inspectors – Aids to Revenue “ – Agents had to be approved by Sec of Treasury –         payments to each was negotiated by the Sec Treasury – The Secretary and Collector were the only persons who knew the identity of these operatives – the Collector was the paymaster for the operative. The operative reported once per week (if able) to the Sec of Treasury.

1840s – Listing of “Secret Inspectors” from Natl Archives:

W. (or J.) Tubman Jones– Secret Inspector — Oct 31, 1842 – Georgetown (DC) District.

Employed to track transport of slaves out of the district – none were found and Jones was relieved of duty after approx. 8 months.

Samuel Chubbuck– Secret Inspector – Nov 2, 1842 – Niagara (NY) District. (surfaces as Secret Inspector from 1831 to at least 1842)

Wm, H. Newton – Secret Agent – Nov 2, 1842 – Niagara (NY) District

Samuel Whitcomb – Secret Agent – Dec 8, 1842 – Buffalo (NY) District

Thomas L. Thompson – Secret Inspector – Aug 21, 1843 – Sackett Harbor – NY

Anson Hayden – Secret Inspector – April 11, 1844 – Cape Vincent, NY

D.C. Fairchild – Secret Inspector – Oct 23, 1844- Cuyahoga, NY.

On several occasions no inspection of boats- baggage or goods was noted to have been inspected by local Customs Inspectors per Fairchild.

James Zabriskie – Secret Inspector – Sept 3, 1845 – New Brunswick, NJ

John A. Parker– (current collector at Tappahabbock, VA nominated as “Traveling Agent         for the Government” to TX or Mexico – Dec 5, 1845

Henry B. Lothrop – Secret Traveling Inspector of Customs – Aug 15, 1849 – Chicago District

Aug 30, 1841 – John Minot – Secret Inspector -Salem, MA disclosed in a letter to Treasury Sec Thomas Ewing that he had served in that capacity when Gen Dearborn was Collector at Boston (this was between 1809-1829) 

April 11, 1844 – Anson Hayden – Secret Inspector – Cape Vincent, NY- reported cases to the District Attorney (i.e. US Attorney) for liquor smuggling and fraudulent entry of goods

June 17, 1844 — Appropriations Act “That the number of Inspectors in any Custom-house shall not be increased beyond the number now in service; and that no allowance shall be made to any Inspector, for   any services, subsistence, traveling or any other amount beyond the amount fixed by law of three dollars a day, and not to exceed ten cents per mile for traveling expenses when actually engaged in the performance of his duties at any other place than the port or custom-house from the Collector of which he has received his appointment.”

July 17, 1846 – Erastus Hale – Confidential Inspector –Adams, NY – reported during the quarter ended he traveled 2,487 miles from Buffalo to Montreal to Plattsburgh – He reported that passenger baggage from Montreal to Ogdensburgh (spelling per document) was not subject to any examination.

Aug 6, 1846 – Law passed by Congress included that “the Special Agents were to be paid at a rate not to exceed $6.00 per day plus traveling expenses”

Sept 15, 1846 – Treasury Sec Walker issued a Circular that he was authorized to appoint Special Agents to conduct audits as the case required under the Aug 6, 1846 Act of Congress.  2 Special Agents were appointed: — P. F. Wilson – H.A. Risley

July 16, 1847 – Josiah T. Marshall – Secret Inspector – Champlain, NY District – His employment as such was dis-avowed by Treasury Sec Walker – telling the Collector he was not a Customs employee.

NOTE– in a draft letter to Treasury Sec Spencer, Treasury Comptroller, James Nelson Barker states that Thompson, Hayden and Marshall are Confidential Agents.

Dec 1844- Nov 1847 – David Colbreth Broderick – served as Secret Inspector – Port of NY.

1848 – Secret Inspectors for Customs were paid a total of $7,669.80

Jun 1 – Nov 27, 1848 – Lewis Eaton – Secret Inspector – Buffalo Creek, NY District – submitted a bill for services of $695.60 – 180 days @ $3.00 per day + 1556 miles @ .10 p mile.  Plus an additional submittal of – $354.00

Wm. L. G. Smith – Niagara District -submitted – $1282.60       

Erastus Hall –– Sackett Harbor, NY submitted – $1214.00

D.C. Whitewood – Detroit District – submitted – $774.50

James C. Clinton and David Broderick – NYC – submitted a total of – $3160.00 for the time period of 12-31-1844 to 11-5-1847

J. L. Baines – Oswegatchie-NY – submitted – $345.70

John Johnson – Cape Vincent- NY – submitted – $549.00

Feb 1849 — John B. Macy – appointed as Secret Inspector – Chicago District

March 3, 1849-   Act of Congress allowed Customs to receive an appropriation for operations as opposed        to taking the money from revenues before submitting them to the Treasury Congressional Act.  “An act Requiring All Monies Receivable From the Customs and All Other Sources, to be Paid Immediately into the Treasury, Without Abatement or Reduction, and for Other Purposes”

May 1, 1849 –   Commissioner of Customs was Charles W. Rockwell, Based on the above new law the Commissioner advised all Collectors that the budget           allocated for FY July 1, 1850 was not to exceed $1,500,000

The expenses of collecting the revenue for previous FY were estimated at $2,100,000

All Collectors were told to submit a plan for reducing expenses.

May 12, 1849 – John L. Barnes – “Secret Service” employee at Oswegatchie, NY was recommended to be discontinued by the Collector to reduce expenses

June 30, 1849 – Prior to this date no Congressional appropriations were made to Customs. All expenses were taken from Revenue received before they were submitted to the Treasury Department

1850 – P. F. Wilson – Special AgentNOTE – H. A. Risley may have been appointed as a Special Agent at the same time as Wilson.  Allegedly both were appointed by Treasury Sec Walker

March 3, 1851 – Congress approved 4 Appraisers of Merchandise also known as General Appraisers-to be used at any port deemed necessary.

First Appraisers:

Charles Bradley – Boston

Lewis Sutton – MD & VA

Sam Bridge – CA

George Pomeroy – NY

1857- Henry Crocker – New Orleans

By the end of the decade many of the Appraisers investigative duties were handled by the “Special Agents” – The Appraisers duties then became merchandise assessment and appeals.

Aug 29, 1852 – Act of Congress allowed merchandise in bonded warehouses to be exported thru certain ports and routes to Mexico

April 1853 – Treasury Sec James Guthrie removed 42 “Confidential Agents” from every Collectors office by way of a Circular. Of the 42 – 36 were believed to be “Secret Inspectors” and 6 were “Special Agents”. Some of those relieved of duty were:

I. D. Andrews — appt Oct 7, 1850 – salary $6.00 per day + mileage

J. H. C. Mudd – appt Dec 6, 1850 – salary $3000. Per yr

Thomas C. Hambly – appt May 10, 1851 – salary$2500 per yr. to Nov 1, 1852

Geo. W. Pleasants – appt Oct 1852 – salary $6.00 per day + .10 per mile.

Platt – appt Dec 1, 1852 – salary $2000

Samuel Ward – apt. Feb 25, 1853 – salary $1000.00 advanced

NOTE– Treasury Sec Guthrie’s letter to Samuel Ward canceled his appointment as “Secret Agent”

1853 – Treasury Sec James Guthrie advanced the idea to move Inspectors to different locations (to prevent smuggling) – that technique called for introduction of Mounted Customs Inspectors.  The first 16 mounted Inspectors and their places of birth were:

NOTE: Only 14 names were listed

Antonio Salinas – (TX)

George Bryant – (Ireland)

George Nelson – (Isle of Jersey)

David Thalheimer – (Germany)

Joel Felkins – (VA)

James Daugherty – (NY)

Thaddeus M. Rhoades – (NC)

John W. Moore – (ME)

Justo Trevino – (TX)

Lawton Gary – (FL)

Thomas W. Adams – (TN)

C.J. VanDusen – (NY)

David M. Level – (VA)

Jose Angel Fernandez – (TX) – replaced Felkins on Oct 6, 1853

Early 1854 – “Special Agent” J. Ross Browne (served with Customs) 1853-1860) reported to Treasury Sec Guthrie on the effectiveness of the mounted Inspectors.

March 13, 1854 – Treasury Sec Guthrie extended the Mounted Inspectors on the Mexican border for an additional year.

March 28, 1854 – Congressional Act – allowed for withdrawals from Bonded warehouse to another bonded warehouse –duty free

June 30, 1854 — Treasury Sec James Guthrie Annual Report to Congress stated that Wm. Gouge had been appointed (as “Special Agent”) to examine all the assistant treasurers and       depositaries except San Francisco and all the southern offices not previously examined. The assistant treasurer’s office at San Francisco was previously examined by Special Agent J. Ross Browne

March 16, 1855 – “Special Agent” John B. (or R) Guthrie -reported to Treasury Sec. from Port of Roma, TX that the Mounted Inspector program had been extended for another year.

NOTE – No information from this research book ascertained whether Special Agent John R. Guthrie was related to Treasury Secretary James Guthrie.

April 5, 1855, “Special Agent”, John Guthrie reported to Treasury Sec from Port of Point Isabel, TX that the Mounted Inspector program was beneficial to the collection of revenue.

1857-1861– Charles P. Cooper was a Special Agent performing inspections of Customs offices along the Southern border

Jan 23, 1858 – Charles F. Cooper was a “Special Agent”- working in Key West district.

Jun 1, 1859 – Benjamin F. Carpenter– nominated for “Secret Inspector” in District of Eastport, ME.  Treasury Sec Howell Cobb rejected the nomination – stating that the number of Secret Inspectors in the district is full – BUT he could be hired as “An Aid to the Revenue” for six months

1862 – Legislation passed allowing the Sec Treasury to employ “Special Agents” as Customs Officers. Heretofore they were employed by the Treasury Department and assigned to Customs Agency

June 25, 1862 – Treasury Sec Salmon Chase approved the appointment of:

Eben B. Shears – Aid to the Revenue – assigned to Lewiston, NY (but residing in Canada) pay rate $3.00 per day

Wm. Wadsworth – Aid to the Revenue – assigned to Lewiston, NY (but residing in Canada) – pay rate $1.50 pe day

1860’s S.D. Jones – Special Agent – stationed outside the U.S.  Pay rate was $2892 for 16 month plus $13,036 expenses.

Mar 12, 1863 –   Congress passed Law to allow Sec Treasury to appoint Special Agents “to collect abandoned and/or captured property.” Treasury Sec S. Cahse organized the Special Agents into five special agencies in locations within the Confederacy. These units were manned by a “Supervising Special Agent, Assistant Special Agent, Local Special Agent and Agency Aid”

These five agencies covered:

Land west of the Allegheny Mountains – Including Alabama-Mississippi-Arkansas – Louisiana – only those sections occupied by Union forces

Virginia- West Virginia- East of the Allegheny Mountains

North Carolina

South Carolina- Georgia – Florida

Texas -Louisiana- to the extent of those areas operating within the confines of Union troops

1863 – The following eight (8) Special Agents were appointed (under the July 13, 1861 Act of Congress) for terms of 3 months to 4 years:

J. P. Tucker – W.G. Brownlow – B. F. Flanders – Thos. Heaton – E. L. Pierce – W. P. Mellon –T. H. Yeatman – D. G. Barnitz

1863 – Wm. Jones – Special Agent – stationed in Cuba

July 2, 1864 – Legislation passed supplementing the previous law concerning handling property – fraud and keeping commerce flowing. It authorized Treasury Sec to have Customs “Special Agents” conducting investigations for detecting/preventing fraud in commercial trade and to examine witnesses under oath.”

1863 – 66 E.H. Hudson – Special Agent- stationed in Europe during this time.

1863 – 69 Montgomery Gibbs – Special Agent – stationed in Europe during this time.  Expenses varied from $2800 to $21,000

1865 – 69   W.B. Farwell – Special Agent -stationed in Europe during this time.  Expenses varied from $2800. To $10,000

NOTE – Information obtained regarding- Jones – Hudson – Gibbs – Farwell from the following documents

“History of Special Agents Division by John A. Corwin – Customs Agent” (for Gibbs and Farwell)

This is an undated document believed to be from 1930s-1950s.

Document details the origins and early years of Customs Special Agents

An “Annual Report of the Secretary of Treasury on the State of Finances for the year 1885-Vol 2- Collection of Duties”

By mid – 1864 the Special Agents now included a “General Agent” and “officers of the Customs designated by the Secretary” (i.e.-Treasury)

1865 – The Official Register of the U.S. for 1865 lists:

W.P. Mellon, “General Agent” – operating from Cincinnati

D.G. Barnitz – (no title provided) operating from the Cincinnati office

The report lists nine (9) Supervising Agents and twenty-five (25) Assistant Special Agents -employed by Customs (unnamed)

Regulations put forth by Treasury Sec indicates that the “General Agent” is in Charge of the agencies – the “Supervising Agent” is in charge of the local agency and the “Assistant Special Agent” was the district supervisor

Late 1865 – The Special Agencies disappeared – the number of Special Agents diminished from 36 to 26 and classified as “Special and Assistant Special Agents”

July 16, 1866 – Act of Congress called for employment of female Inspectors – for examination and search of females

1867 – Alaska became part of US, Treasury Sec dispatched a “Special Agent” and Revenue Cutter to Alaska to set up Customs ports and districts

Jun 30, 1868 – Treasury Sec McCulloch issued a Circular “To Special Agents employed on Customs business.” He specified the following twelve (12) areas in which Special Agents were to conduct investigations:

The offices of the various Officers, and that of the Appraisers stores, and the employees of these offices:

Record and Account books

Revenue boats and barges

U.S. Marine Hospitals

Numbers and tonnage of coastwise vessels

Numbers of entries of merchandise

Fines, penalties and forfeitures


Salaries paid to the different Customhouse and Appraisers offices and        employees

Bonded warehouses and public stores

All Government property

Bonded routes and merchandise in transit

1868 – 69 Louis W. Violleis (or Violles) – Special Agent – stationed in Europe during this time – primarily in France and assisted with various “wine Cases”

Total salary and expenses for 1868-69 was $14,640.

Information reference Violleis obtained from the following documents

History of Special Agents Division by John A. Corwin- Customs Agent”

This is an undated document believed to be from 1930s-1950s.

Document talks about origins and early years of Customs Special Agents

And “Annual Report of the Secretary of Treasury on the State of Finances for the year 1885- Vol 2- Collection of Duties”

March – 1868 – 62 Special Agents employed by Customs

1869 – 54 Special Agents employed.

June 30, 1869 – 93 Special Agents and Special Inspectors received compensation during the Fiscal Year

1869 – The “Official Register U.S. – 1869” lists Oscar D. Madge – Supervising Special Agent – stationed in Washington, DC (he was the Chief Supv. Agent)

NOTE – there is some evidence to believe that in addition to the Special Agents at the various ports of entry there may have been more than one assigned to Europe and one in Cuba.

1869 – Daniel G. Lobdell – Special Agent — (stationed in Main Treasury Washington, DC).

History of Special Agents Division by John A. Corwin- Customs Agent”

This is an undated document believed to be from 1930s-1950s

Document talks about origins and early years of Customs Special Agents

From “The Executive Documents- House of Representatives-1871-72” the “Treasury Accounts for the 3rd Quarter of 1869” were listed. The portion naming the Special Agents of Customs was listed along with the money paid to same in that quarter –All are Special Agents except those marked – the names are highlighted below:

J. P. Ames – Special Inspector

Wm. Armstrong – Asst. Special Agent

Ira Ayer Jr. – Asst. Special Agent – $180.

John W. Bear – Asst. Special Agent – $75.00

Geo. W. Bedell – Special Inspector

J. Warren Bell – $400.

Norman W. Bingham

N. W. Blingham – Special Agent Treasury – $399.60

Chas. E. Bloss

A.A. Brush – $180.00

D. E. Coon – $120.

Simon Corley – Asst. Special Agent

N. M. Curtis – $661.79

Bailey D. Dawson

Wm Dill – Asst. Special Agent

John C. Dutch – $325.80

Albert Evans

Edward Le Favour

Edward Hartley – Special Agent Treasury – $209.20

A. P. Heichold

Lewis Heyl-$235.00

Benjamin H. Hinds – $219.08

Frank E. Howl – $485.99

Wales Hubbard – $180.00

Henry W. Hunt – Asst Special Agent

J. Harry Jenks – $130.

C. K. Judson -Asst Special Agent

T.J. Kinsella

Daniel G. Lobdell – $518.95

John F. McLean

Steven D. Mills

Geo. T. Morehouse – Special Inspector – #132.15

Chas. A. Morrill – Asst. Special Agent

David E. Mosley – Asst. Special Agent

Edward T. Moulton – Asst. Special Agent

Geo. W. Munson

D. A. Nevin – $69.40

L. Nutting

Chas. S. Park – $311.

O. F. Partridge – $163.50

Geo. Plitt – $267.60

C. M. Plumb – $210.

B. F. Prescott – $206.60

J. F. Richardson- $67.23

Frederick Robie

John D. Sandborn – Asst. Special Agent

E .T. S. Schenck

E. B. Shafer – $180.

Amos Y. Smith – $345.

T. R. Toole – $345.80

J. H. Wiggin – $262.70

Feb 1, 1870 – At this reporting to Congress by the Sec Treasury the number of Special Agents had been reduced to fifty-one (51) and three (3) Special Inspectors.

Feb 2, 1870 – The House requested Sec. Treasury to furnish the names of all Special Agents and Assistant Special Agents in the Treasury Dept who had been on the rolls on Mar 4, 1869 and those appointed since.

Treasury Sec Boutwell responded there had been sixty-four (64) Special Agents and fifteen (15) Special Inspectors (no names listed in the report)

Circa 1870 – the only titles in use for “operatives” was Special Agents and Special Inspectors.

In the 1870 Annual Report by the Sec of Treasury the terms “detective and sundry special Inspector” were used – these terms disappeared after this report.

May 12, 1870 – Special Agent of the Dept of Treasury officially sanctioned – They worked for the Treasury Dept. – not the Customs Service.

This Law limited the number of Special Agents within the Treasury Dept. to fifty-three (53) and none are to be employed beyond that number.

The Law gave the Secretary specific authority to appoint Special Agents for Customs business.

The law divided Special Agents into three classes according to compensation:

1st Class -19 Agents @ $10.00 per day plus expenses and 17 @ $8.00 per day plus expenses

2nd Class – 16 Special Agents@ $6.00 per day plus expenses

3rd Class – 18 Special Agents @ $5.00 per day plus expenses

June 8, 1874 – Treasury Sec Benjamin Bristow designated the “Commissioner of Customs”, Henry Clay Johnson, as Superintendent of All Special Agents – and abolishing the prior district structure.

June 20, 1874 – Circular from the Sec. Treasury – Reduced the prior 12 areas of enforcement for Special Agents to the following six (6):

The clandestine or irregular landing of imported merchandise by sea

Smuggling or other unlawful introduction of merchandise on the frontiers

Shipments, in the coasting trade or overland, of dutiable merchandise, the               payment of duties on which has been evaded by collusion with Customs officials and employees or by reason of their inefficiency or neglect.

By means of false statements, invoices, entries, samples or other fraudulent practices or appliances.

The execution of insufficient or defective bonds, the giving of bonds by         irresponsible or fictitious persons, and the cancellation of bonds by improper means.

NOTE– Section IX of the Circular is the first mention of use of identification. “Each Special Agent will hold a certificate of his appointment, for his official use, to be surrendered to the Department at the close of his term of office, for cancellation prior to the settlement and payment of his final account”

NOTE– The Special Agents were still responsible for inspecting records, making seizures and reporting same, for inspecting the books, papers and accounts of Collectors. Providing witnesses and administering oaths.

1869-1874 – During this time the first organizational structure of Special Agents takes place with districts and a Superintendent. Orders from the Dept of Treasury were sent to the Agent in Charge who passed the orders to the rank and file – Likewise all reports were submitted to the supervisor and then to Treasury.

1874 – First use of Badges for Inspectors when on special service. These positions were variously known as “District Inspectors. Boarding Inspectors, Coast Inspectors, Frontier Inspectors, Night Inspectors, Female Inspectors, Discharge Inspectors and Special Inspectors”.

July 18, 1875 – The Circular order from the Sec Treasury placing the Special Agents under the Commissioner of Customs was revoked and placed them under the Solicitor of the Treasury. The order detailed approximately eight (8) Special Agents to work under the Commissioner of Customs to continue their examinations of Customs officials’ books

NOTE – Within two weeks of the Solicitor assuming control of the Special Agents the prior Districts,     

Supervising Agent and designated territories were re-established. The Solicitor of the Treasury also added an additional duty to be performed by the Special Agents – “The introduction of dutiable goods in passenger’s baggage with intent to evade payment of duties”

Aug 2, 1875 – Circular from the Solicitor of the Treasury repeated the names of the Supervising Special Agents for each district and added the names of the Special Agents who were assigned in each district.

NOTE – these names do not appear in the book

Jun 11, 1877 – Division of Special Agents formed with a Supervising Agent reporting to an Assistant Treasury Secretary – This was announced via Circular, Department 76 from the Secretary’s office

A.K. Tingle was placed in charge as the Supervising Agent

1878 – The “Division of Special Agents” formed under an Assistant Secretary of Treasury.

1884 – Inspectors at some ports required to wear uniform

1885 – Special Agents:

Louis G. Martin – Supv Sp Agt – Washington, D.C. — $8.00 pd – Jul 1, 1885

George C. Tichenor

Treasury Sec Mannings annual report to Congress determined that the earliest law “specifically” authorizing the appointment of Special Agents is the law of May 12, 1870. Fifty-three (53) agents were allowed to be employed for the purpose of examining the books – papers and accounts of collectors and other officers of the Customs

1894 – All Inspectors required to wear a uniform

1895 – Special Agents – Special Inspectors – Special Employees employed by Customs taken from the –     “Official Register of the U.S. – Vol 1 – Officers and Employees- July 1, 1895”

Agent name- place of birth – current duty station- salary (all at $8.00 per day unless otherwise noted)

NOTE – The Special Employees were “paid from appropriation for prevention and detection of frauds upon the customs revenue”

Special Agents:

Ira Ayers, Jr — NY – NYC

Frank W. Beane – IN – Tacoma (WA) — $6.00

Edward C. Brown – NY – Plattsburg (NY) — $6.00

Walter S. Chance – Ohio – Philadelphia

Chas. S. Crain – MA – Chicago

Geo. W. Crites – Ohio – Cincinnati *possible photo

Geo. F. Cross – WVA – NYC

Crowley, Jeremiah J. Crowley – Supv. Special Agent – Boston – Washington, DC -$10.  *photo available

Mar 8, 1867 – Sp. Agt. – Special Agency Service- US Dept of Treasury

July 1895 serving as Supv Sp Agt in Washington, DC                                

Nov 4, 1896 Chief of Special Agents in Chicago i

Graduate of Georgetown College                                      

Supv. Agent for 10 Special Agents at Colombian Exposition 1893 (Chicago) as of 1924 was an officer with MO State Life Insurance Co)

Leslie Cullom – TN – Tacoma, WA

Jay C. Cummings – PA – NYC

John C. Gallen – PA – Philadelphia — $6.00

Marcus Hanlan – Ireland – Philadelphia

Wm. P. Hudgens – VA – San Antonio — $6.00

A. C. Jenkins – KY – Suspension Bridge, NY — $6.00

Chas. W. Johnston – KY – Spokane (WA) — $6.00

E. Polk Johnson – KY – St Louis

Louis G. Martin – NY – Baltimore

James A. McEnery – Louisiana – New Orleans

Chas. A. Macatee – MD – Savannah –$6.00

Louis Morton Montgomery – NY – London (England) *photo available     

1887 – Sp. Agt. – NYC — $8.00

1889 – Sp. Agt. – Boston — $8.00

Mar 12, 1890 – Testimony before House of Reps on enforcement of immigration laws -was Sp. Agt. in Boston

July 1890 investigated sugar valuation frauds in port of NYC

1891 – Sp. Agt. – NYC

1893 – Sp. Agt. – NYC @ $8.00 pd

1897 – 1903 – Sp. Agt. – St Louis — $8.00

Horace A. Moore – PA –San Francisco

Legare Phenix – MD – NYC *photo available

First mention is Jul 1885 as Sp. Agt. in Chicago @ pay of $6.00

Also stationed in Plattsburg, NY – Official Register notes he resigned from Customs on Dec 31, 1905.

Converse J. Smith – NH – Boston

Edward T. Stokes – NY – Plattsburg (NY) — $6.00

Geo. W. Whitehead – NY – El Paso

Wm. H. Williams – Ohio – Paris (France)

Edwin O. Wood – MI — Detroit

D. H. Yancey – SC – Tampa — $6.00

Special Inspectors:   NOTE – All pay at $4.00 per day except as noted

John W. Anderson – GA — Savannah

Gorham C. Andrews – GA – Eastport, ME

W. L. Baby – Ontario – Evansville, IN

Jos. Barton – England – Ogden,* Utah — $1.00

*NOTE– unclear from document if this is UT or a shortened name version for Ogdensburg, NY

In 1895 there may not have been a POE at Ogden, UT

John A. Butler – Ireland – NYC

Vernon A. Bullard – VT – Burlington, VT

Luke A. Burke – IN – Bisbee, AZ

James Cavanagh – Ireland – NYC

John Curtis – NJ – NYC

Silas W. Day – NY – Ogdensburg (NY)

Patrick K. Delaney – NY – Plattsburg (NY)

John Denneny – Canada – Port Huron (MI)

Gordon Dunlap – NY – Buffalo

Wm Ferguson – MO – Eagle Pass (TX)

Frank Finley – NY – NYC

John V. George – PA – Clayton (NY)

Edward D. Hall – NC – Wilmington (NC)

B. E. Hambleton – VA – Nogales, AZ

Michael Harrington, Jr – Unk – Toledo, OH

Laurence Hanley – NY – NYC

Thomas C. Hannun – OH – Philadelphia

Valentine M. Haynes – AL – Sault Ste Marie, MI

Walter Hudnall – KY – St Paul, MN

Fred W. Hess – Germany – Buffalo

Wm Hussey – Ireland – NYC

Ralph Izard – VA – Monterey, Mexico

Anthony J. Kennery – PA – Detroit

Theodore G. Kimman – Holland – Pembina, ND

John Johnson – Ireland – Philadelphia

DeWitt C. Jackson – NY – Suspension Bridge (NY)

Miss Annie Jarvis Locke – MA – Boston — $720.

Robert H. Mayes – MS – Morristown, NY

Fergus Malone – Ireland – Kalispell, MT

Colin MacNichol – Canada – Eastport (ME)

Patrick J. McCarthy – NH – Chicago

James H. Maguire – Ireland – Montreal, Que — $5.00 

Harry Martin – PA – Philadelphia

John Mason – VA – Pensacola, FL

A. K. Mathews – DC – Washington, DC

James Nolan – PA – Philadelphia

S. I. Norton – NY – NYC

John S. Neal – PA – Indianapolis, IN

Robert Meg. Ormiaton – NY – Detroit

E. S. Palmer – NJ – NYC

Robert C. Ould – DC – Richmond, VA

Thomas H. O’Neil – MA – Boston

Stephen L. Purdy – NY – El Paso

Thomas J. Roush – IN – Sierra Blanca, TX * photo available

Photo lists Roush as Special Agent

1889 – pd. $59.30 by Treasurer of US

1901 – Listed as Spl. Insp in Nogales @ $4.00

1903 – Listed as Sp Insp in Deming, NM

1907 – Not listed in Official Register (Special Inspectors not listed that year)

N. C. Ridenour – TN – West Palm Beach, FL

Richard Rule – WI – El Paso

Adolphus Russell – Bahamas – Braidentown*, FL — $.50

*spelling per Register

Geo. S. Seally – NY – NYC

Wm. B. Sessions – NY – Ogdensburg, NY

Frank Shipley – MD – Baltimore

Wm. H. Thornton – PA – Mobile, AL

Whitney Wall – WI – Duluth, MN

Guy M. Watkins – PA – Philadelphia

“Special Employees”:

Miss Anne C. Ackerly – NY – NYC — $2.50

Geo. R. Andrews – NY – Detroit — $6.00

Fred A. Barraclough – England – Manchester, England — $5.00

James A. Bayard – MD – Newport News, VA

C. H. Blanchard – Louisiana – New Orleans – $6.00

J. C. Benton – KY- San Francisco — $6.00

Thomas F. Berry – KY – Brownsville, TX — $4.00

Geo. Bofinger – Germany – Detroit — $2.00

Wm F. Bunn – IL – Boston — $5.00

T. Aubrey Byrne – West Indies – Boston

Angus C. Bissell – NY – Cleveland

Geo. Carter – NY – Newport News, VA — $6.00

Geo. R. Channing – MA – San Francisco — $6.00

James W. Collier – NY – NYC — $5.00

Miss Margaret K. Collins – MI – Detroit — $2.00 *photo available

As of July1, 1901 listed as “Special Inspector” at $3.00pd

As of 1922 listed in Detroit City Directory as a resident

Samuel Cover – unk – Baltimore — $5.00

Geo. Debray – NY – Paris, France — $5.00

P. C. Gorman – MD – Baltimore — $6.00

Hugh A. Haralson – GA – Savannah — $6.00

Fred W. Hents – MA – Boston — $4.00

Wm Lee Hoskins – OH – NYC — $6.00

Wm B. Howell – NJ – Washington, DC — $2,400.

Miss Gertrude F. Lynch – CT – NYC — $1,200

John G. Macgregor – Scotland – Tacoma, WA — $6.00

Listed on July 1, 1885 as “Chief” of Customs in Washington, DC –pay $2750.

Louis Meredith Howland – France – Paris (France)

John P. Murray – NY – NYC — $6.00

Louis O’Shaughnessy – OH – Cincinnati — $6.00

Miss Eva F. Smith – OH – NYC — $2.50

Thomas J. Sullivan – NY – NYC — $4.00

David W. Voyles – IN – ST Louis — $6.00

Isaac Wilson – NY – NYC — $4.00

1901 – Special Agents employed by Customs taken from the – “Official Register of the U.S. – Officers and Employees- July 1, 1901”

Agent name- place of birth – current duty station- salary (all at $8.00 per day unless otherwise noted)

Ira Ayer – NY – NYC

Walter S. Chance- Supv Special Agent – Ohio – Washington, DC — $10.00 per day (prior position was Supv. Special Agent – Phila)

G. E. Channing – MA – San Francisco — $6.00 per day

Harry D. Chichester – TX – Pribilof Islands, Alaska — $2190.

Ezra W. Clark – NY – Pribilof Islands, Alaska — $2190.

Chas. S. Crain – MA – St Paul, MN 

Geo. W. Crites – Ohio – Cincinnati

Geo. F. Cross – WVA –NYC

Jeremiah. J. Crowley – MA – Chicago *photo available

Leslie Cullom – TN – Baltimore

Jay C. Cummings – PA –NYC

John Curtis – NJ – NYC — $6.00 per day

Joseph F. Evans – PA – Sitka, Alaska — $6.00 per day

John C. Gallen – PA – Phila

Marcus Hanlon – Ireland – NYC

Frederick W. Hentz – MA — Boston

Benjamin H. Hinds – ME- NYC — $6.00 per day

E. Polk Johnson – KY – New Orleans

James Judge – Ohio – Pribilof Islands, Alaska — $2920.

Walter I. Lembky – PA – Pribilof Islands, Alaska — $3650.

J. W. Linck – IN – Tacoma, Washington

J. A. McEnery – Louisiana – Galveston, TX

C. A. Macatee – MD – Savannah — $6.00 per day

Louis Morton Montgomery – NY – St Louis * photo available

Burton Parker – MI – Detroit

Legare Phenix – MD – Ogdensburg-NY * photo available

Converse J. Smith – NH – Boston

Caleb W. West – KY – Niagara Falls, NY — $6.00 per day

W. H. Williams – Ohio – Paris, France

Jul, 1, 1905 Special Agents – Special Inspectors – Special Employees employed by Customs taken from the – “Official Register of the U.S. – Vol 1 – Officers and Employees- July 1, 1905”

Agent name- place of birth – current duty station- salary (all at $8.00 per day unless otherwise noted)

NOTE – The Special Employees “paid from appropriation for prevention and detection of frauds upon the customs revenue”

Special Agents:

Walter S. Chance – OH – St Paul MN

Giovanni E. Channing – MA – San Francisco — $6.00

Ralph W. Clayton – WI – NYC

Gassaway F. Cross – VA – Buffalo

Jeremiah Jerome Crowley – MA – Chicago * photo available

Le3slie Cullom – TN – Baltimore

James C. Cummings – PA – Galveston

John Curtis – NJ – NYC

John C. Gallen – PA – Philadelphia

Marcus Hanlon – Ireland – NYC

Burton Parker – Supv Chief — MI – Washington, DC — $10.00

Edward Polk Johnson – KY – Cincinnati

Frank E. Johnson – VA – Boston

Chas. A. Macatee – MD – Savannah — $6.00

James Alexander McEnery – Louisiana – New Orleans

Wm. Montgomery Rice – GA – Seattle

Legare Phenix – MD – Ogdensburg (NY) — $6.00 *photo available

Eugene P. Valentine – Louisiana – Tampa — $6.00 *photo available

Photo reflects 1903 stationed in NYC – no record located for that date

Nathaniel G. Van Doren – MS – Boston – $6.00

Caleb W. West – KY – San Francisco 

Wm. H. Williams – OH – Paris (France)

Special Inspectors: (all special Inspectors @ $4.00 pd except as noted)

Mrs. Annie C. Ackerly – NY- NYC — $3.50

Harry A Chester – PA – Philadelphia

Miss Margaret K. Collins – MI – Detroit — $1200. *photo available

Silas W. Day – NY – Ogdensburg (NY)

Wm. Dowling – Ireland – Detroit

John H. Droun – DC –St Louis

Theophilus Grout – Canada –Boston

Augustus B. Hamer – TN – Seattle

Miss Esther C. Hansen – MN – Seattle — $720.

Mrs. Caroline W. Henry – Paris (France) — $100. Per Month

Geo. J. Kelly – KY – Ogden,* Utah — $25. Per Month

NOTE: unclear from document if this is UT or a shortened document name for Ogdensburg, NY

Ms. Annie Jarvis Locke – MA – Boston — $1200.

Wm. H. Martin – NJ – Malone, NY

John Mason – VA – New Orleans

Arnold E. Needham – IL – San Francisco

Albert D. Pomroy – NY – Buffalo

Wm B. Sessions – NY – Rouses Point (NY)

Frank Shipley – MD – Laredo (TX)

Miss Eva F. Smith – OH –NYC — $3.00

Jacob Swivel – Germany – Mooers, NY

Chas. Edward Webb – IA – Chicago

Oliver Wilson – PA – Philadelphia

Confidential Agents: (all Confidential Agents at $8.00 per day except as noted)

Stoughton E. Armstrong – Louisiana – Paris (France)

Chas. R. Bradley – OH – Paris (France)

John Emmitt Jr – France – Paris (France) — $3.00

Oscar Gottschalk – Germany – Paris (France)

James Hayes – NY – Yokohama (Japan)

Louis Meredith Howland – France – Paris (France)

Carl Kaufmann – Germany – St Gall (Switzerland)

Dwight J. Partello – NJ – Paris (France)

Special Employees: (all Special Employees at $6.00 per day except as noted)

Everett Anglin – TX – Brownsville (TX — $3.50

T. Aubrey Byrne – West Indies – NYC — $3.00

Chas. A. Bailey – MI – Port Huron (MI)

Thurlow Weed Barnes – NY – NYC — $5.00

Frank J. Bates – KS – DC

Lawrence H. Bates – TX – Brownsville (TX) — $5.00

Lemuel Willis Bean – NH – Portland (ME) — $5.00

Frederick Bennett – CT – NYC

Geo. T. Black – OR – El Paso

Wm Ferguson Bunn – IL – Niagara Falls (NY)

Geo. Carter – NY – Baltimore — $5.00

Carl H. Chandler – MA – Boston — $5.00

Adolph Cohn – Bohemia – NYC — $5.00

W. D. Crenshaw – IA — NYC

W. T. Diller – IL – NYC — $4.00

Geo. B. Donnelly — PA — Philadelphia

Chas. B. Dowd – MA – Boston — $4.00 *photo available

At unknown date was transferred to El Paso

1921- Listed as Sp. Agt. in Boston per “Boston Register”

Taliesin Evans – NY – NYC — $8.00

Robt. E. Ford – Canada – NYC — $5.00

Edgar P. Hoag – NY – NYC

Wm Lee Hoskins – OH — NYC

Lovell H. Jerome – NY – NYC — $8.00

Lawrence B. Kemp – MD — Philadelphia

Chas. Edward Lewis – NY – Detroit — $8.00

Albert E. Losson – MN – Boston — $4.00

Geo. B. Lincoln – MN – NYC

Arthur F. Maher – DC – Philadelphia

Frank H. Martin – IA – Boston — $5.00

Ralph A. McDonald – IL – El Paso — $5.00

Solon L. Norton – NY – NYC

Thomas Henry O’Neill – MA – Boston

Richard Parr – NY – Portland (ME) — $5.00

Moses Parshelsky – MI – Detroit

John N. Parsons – NY – NYC — $4.00

Arthur T. Pienkowsky – WI – unk — $5.00

E. A. Robinson – ME – NYC — $4.00

John Francis Scanlan – Ireland – Chicago — $8.00 *photo available

1901 – listed as Spl. Employee Chicago @ $6.00

1907 – listed as Spl. Employee in Chicago

A. W. Smith – NY – Detroit — $5.00

Oliver Lyman. Spaudling – NH- Washington, DC — $10.00

*photo available under name “A.L.”

B-1833 -1922– buried Arlington Natl Cemetery: Graduate Oberlin College

1858-64-Regent Univ. MI

Civil War-Brig Gen: Practiced Law in MI

1866-70-MI Sec State

1881-83-Elected House of Reps                              

1883-Chair of Commission in Sandwich Islands to investigate Hawaii Reciprocity Treaty violations

1885, 1889-90-Treasury Sp. Agt.

1890-93-Asst. Sec Treasury

1897-1903: 1903-President 1st Intl American Customs Conference:

1903-1916 Treasury Sp Agt

Don Alney Stone – VT — Detroit

Theodore F. Swayze – NJ – Baltimore *photo available

1895- Chief Treasury Clerk and Superintendent of all Treasury Bldgs in DC

1897 listed as Chief Clerk- pay $3000.

1899-Listed in “Statesman’s Yearbook” as Chief Clerk of Treasury

1921-Represented the Assoc of Retired Federal Employees before Congress.

Geo. Reid Vernon – NY – San Francisco

Guy M. Watkins – PA – Portland (OR) — $5.00

June 1935 Horace M. Gillman- Supervising Special Agent – Los Angeles – Salary – $4600 per year

Information obtained from the following documents

History of Special Agents Division by John A. Corwin- Customs Agent”

This is an undated document believed to be from 1930s-1950s

Document talks about origins and early years of Customs Special Agents

An “Annual Report of the Secretary of Treasury on the State of Finances for the year 1885 – Vol2 – Collection of Duties”

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